Optimizing a site can mean many things. If you’re an eCommerce site, probably means optimizing your landing page, hiding your navigation so as not to distract, and pushing visitors toward the goal of a transaction receipt page. For small business and service professionals, it may mean getting someone to fill out a form. Or if you’re a publishing site, it very well might mean something nearly opposite of those two focused goals – perhaps you actually do want visitors to traverse your navigation, discover and engage with your content or community. No matter how you describe it though, these things all have one thought in common: you’re looking to maximize the value of each visitor to your site.
Although this practice is typically referred to as Website Optimization, Landing Page Optimization (LPO) or Conversion Rate Optimization (CRO), it is part of much broader schools of thought. Many universities now offer interdisciplinary programs called Human Computer Interaction (HCI) that combine the study of Psychology and Information Systems, to better understand how to create systems that do a better job of servicing and assisting the humans that the systems were built for. Usability and User Experience are two more common terms now used in design circles, to describe how to improve a user’s interaction with a system or website. In many ways, landing page optimization and conversion optimization are applied marketing concepts, as much as Usability and User Experience are applied design concepts; but they’re all drawing up HCI which simply seeks to create better interfaces that accomplish the goals of the system. For the purposes of this blog post, I’m focusing on the marketing prerogative, but many of these thoughts can be applied to overall system design and usability as well.
So how does one maximize value from their visitor? For the purposes of this discussion, let’s assume we’re talking about the easy to understand and quantify, eCommerce model. With eCommerce, there’s typically a large spend on PPC and that spend is usually in pursuit of directly-quantifiable direct sales; not long-term fuzzier metric brand building. So our goal in this case would be to get users to our site for $1 and get as many of those visitors to buy something as possible, to increase average profits above the dollar we spent to acquire their attention.
- Focusing attention in the direction we want them to go.
- Reinforcing trust and removing doubt and fear.
- Keep attention focused and directed at the goal line (the receipt page).
If we keep those strategic goals in mind, the tactical implementation is relatively straight forward at a high level. Obvious optimizations would be:
- Remove the navigation bar on the landing page
- Use very large submit buttons that are hard to miss
- Use simple bullet points for details, not long-form text
- Don’t present too many choices; match exactly the one product they searched for.
- Use a headline that excites the user.
- Use trust signals such as testimonials or credential logos on landing and checkout pages.
- Minimize extra steps that could be hurdles to checkout such as the always-favorite required membership signup.
- Remove barriers such the form that goes blank and requires refill if one piece of required information is wrong.
- Don’t ask for more information checkout than is absolutely necessary.
- For God sake, do NOT use Captchas!
Beyond those basics, there are a number of more subtle opportunities for optimization that simply require a “feel for the art” of it all, and proper domain knowledge, to match the culture of your users. Catching their attention is key but authenticity and trust are also very important and cannot be sacrificed for a cheap thrill, or they’re not going to give you their credit card number.
Tactics that might work well would include using a larger checkout button with appropriate messaging. Perhaps something exciting such as “Check it Out!” works for an entertainment product but a move conservative “Get Started” is more appropriate for insurance or financial institutions. Color choices, images and titles work the same way. Focus on finding a way to grab attention and infuse emotional excite, without compromising authenticity or trust.
As with any advice, there are many half truths in optimization. What works well for many sites may not work for yours. A lot of this comes down to culture and the issues f authenticity and trust I mentioned above. For this reason, you may start with certain known principles as described above and broader usability heuristics, but the only way to truly know what works best for your own audience, is to test.
Testing in fact, is at the basis of most sophisticated online marketing operations today. We should start with a humility that we never absolutely know truth, we can only approximate it, and should always seek to evaluate truth through objective and empirical evaluation. As such, most online markets today user an iterative approach to their online marketing and optimization strategies. Continual testing and revision is baked into the on-going process.
To test your overall conversion funnel, you just need to setup goals and funnels in your analytics tools to be able to track and observe where bottlenecks are and results of changes. The efficacy of a specific landing page however, is better instrumented with a tool specifically designed to track changes of that one page, and track the goals against those changes. There are tools such as Unbounce, Optimizely, and the free Google Website Optimizer (WSO) for that; WSO optimizer in particular is handy due to its one-click Google Analytics integration.
There are two types of tests that you might consider running for landing page optimization – an A/B test, or a Multivariate test. An A/B test compares two or more separate pages, to determine which is more effective. This is a simple test to setup, requires less traffic, and is great for comparing entirely different versions of page layout. If you instead want to focus on testing more subtle changes within a page such as title messaging, or button color, or featured image, a multivariate test would be appropriate.
For anyone new to optimization, I cannot stress enough, how important these methods are; you’re likely leaving a substantial amount of money on the table. If you’ve never thought about optimization before, its quite likely that you can increase your Return on Ad Spend (ROAS) by 100% or more. I personally have had experiences in which small changes such as making a checkout but big, green and changing the messaging on it, with a single test, increased conversions by almost 40%. So, while this form of methodical and detail-oriented optimization may not be the most sexy part of running your online business, it could easily be one of your most important!